Colon cancer is cancer in the lowest part of the digestive system, the large intestine or colon. Cancer occurs when cells in the body grow abnormally out of control. Most colon cancers occur when small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps on the inner walls of the large intestine change and transform into cancerous (malignant) tumours over time. Identification of these benign polyps before they become cancerous is therefore especially important and can be done by regular screening tests.
Colon cancer cells lead to many complications by invading and damaging healthy tissues in the vicinity. Also, once malignant tumours form, the cancer cells may travel through the blood and lymph systems, eventually spreading to other parts of the body.
Your doctor might recommend treatment options taking into account factors such as the stage of cancer (whether it is in the initial or the final stages) and the overall health of the patient. The different treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.